I Semester

Paper 1:          History of Mizoram

II Semester

Paper 2:          History of India upto Post-Maurya period

III Semester

Paper 3:          History of India (Gupta to Sultanate periods)

IV Semester

Paper 4:          History of the Mughals

V Semester

Paper 5:          Modern India-I

Paper 6:          Modern India- II

Paper 7:          Early Modern Europe

Paper 8:          (a) History of Northeast India(4th  to 13th centuries)


             (b) History of Northeast India(1228-1822)


(c) History of Northeast India(1822-1986)

VI Semester

Paper 9:          Modern World History

Paper 10:        Contemporary World

Paper 11:        Historiography

Paper 12:        History of USA(1776-1945)



History of Modern Southeast Asia



            History of Modern China


History of Modern Japan


List of papers for BA History

Paper        Name of Paper

  1. History of Mizoram
  2. History of India upto Post-Maurya period
  3. History of India(Gupta to Sultanate periods)
  4. History of the Mughals
  5. Modern India-I
  6. Modern India- II
  7. Early Modern Europe
  1. History of Northeast India(4th  to 13th centuries)


  1. History of Northeast India(1228-1822)


  1. History of Northeast India(1822-1986)


  1. Modern World History
  2. Contemporary World
  3. Historiography


  1. History of USA(1776-1945)

History of Modern Southeast Asia


History of Modern China


History of Modern  Japan


History of Mizoram (1840-1960)

Objective: The course intended to familiarize the student with the nature of historical development and present a broad outline of the political history of Mizoram.

Unit I: Pre-colonial Mizo society

  1. Origin myths and legends
  2. Migration of Mizo tribes
  3. Social hierarchy
  4. Chieftainship-origin, authority and function
  5. Zawlbuk (bachelor’s dormitory)
  6. Society and economy-agriculture and ancillary activities

Unit II: Informal colonial encounter

  1.  Early British accounts of the Mizos
  2. Raids and counter military offensives
  3. British Frontier policy and the Mizos
  4. Frontier markets and their role

Unit III: Colonial encounter

  1. Establishment of British rule
  2. disarmament and pacification
  3. land settlement
  4. initiatives and changes in administration
  5. impact on society and economy

Unit IV: Christianity and society

  1. Foundation of Christianity
  2. Establishment of Churches in the North and South
  3. Medical and educational mission
  4. Christian teachings and social transformation
  5. the revival movements

Unit V: Political activism

  1. Roots political awareness and politics of representation
  2. Mizos and the two World Wars
  3. beginning of associations and political parties
  4. Mizos and electoral politics
  5. Separatist politics

Essential Readings:

  1. Shakespear, John, The Lushai-Kuki Clans, TRI, 2009.
  2. Mackenzie, A.,      The North East Frontier of India, Mittal publications, 1979.
  3. Lewin, T.H.,           A Fly on the Wheel, Nabu Press, 2010.
  4. _________.,          Wild Race on the Eastern Frontier of Bengal, Biblio Bazaar, LLC, 2009
  5. McCall, A.G.,         Lushai Chrysalis, TRI.
  6. __________.,        Lushai Hills District Cover, TRI, 2009.
  7. Reid, Robert N.,    History of the Frontier Areas Bordering on Assam, Eastern Pub. House, 1983
  8. Mangkhosat Kipgen, Christianity and Mizo culture: the encounter between Christianity and Zo culture in Mizoram, Theological Conference, 1997.
  9. Lalsangkima Pachuau, Ethnic identity and Christianity: a socio-historical and missiological study of Christianity in northeast India with special reference to Mizoram, P. Lang, 2002.
  10. Frederick S.Downs, Christianity in North East India: historical perspectives, Indian Society                  for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1983.
  11. Vanlalchhuanawma, Christianity and subaltern culture: revival movement as a cultural response to westernisation in Mizoram, Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2006.
  12. Hminga,                C.L., The Life and Witness of the Churches in Mizoram, Literature Committee,  Baptist
    Church of Mizoram, 1987
  13. Lloyd, J.M.,            History of the Church in Mizoram: Harvest in the Hills, Synod Publication Board, 1991
  14. Sangkima              Mizos: Society and Social Change, Spectrum Publications, 1992
  15. Nunthara, C.,         Mizoram: Society and Polity, Indus Publishing Company, 1996
  16. Lalchungnunga      Mizoram: Politics of Regionalism and National Integration, Reliance Pub. House, 1994
  17. Nag, Sajal,             Contesting Marginality: Ethnicity, Insurgency and Subnationalism in NorthEast India,
    Manohar, 2002
  18. Chaube, S.K.,         Hill Politics in NE India Orient Longman Limited, 1999
  19. Scott, James C.,     The Art of Not Being Governed, Yale University Press, 2010
  20. Mizo History Association ,            Historical Journal Mizoram.
  21. SHassan, Sajjad,    Building Legitimacy: Exploring State-Society Relations in Northeast India, OUP, New Delhi, 2008.



History of India upto Post-Maurya period


Objectives:  This course is designed to familiarize with the social, economic, political and cultural developments in India from the Chalcolithic period upto the post-Maurya period. The purpose is to introduce students to elements of change and continuity in Indian history.

Unit I:              Chalcolithic period-The Indus Civilization

  1. Sources for the study of early Indian history
  2. Questions of the origins, growth, and decline of the Indus Civilization; Economics, resources, trade, and communications, settlements and settlement patterns, social and political organization, religion and ideology, material culture, intellectual accomplishments.

Unit II:             Vedic Period

  1. Debate on the Aryans in India
  2. Vedic culture -society, economy, polity and religion as reflected by literary and archaeological sources.
  3. The material and ideological background of the Upanishads.


Unit III:            Post-Vedic Period

  1. Material culture in northern India in the sixth century BC.
  2. The emergence of hetorodox sects-the teachings and relevance of Buddhism and Jainism; the   Ajivikas and other philosophers of the period.
  3. The rise of Janapadas and Mahajanapadas; the ascendancy of Magadha.
  4. Macedonian invasion and its impacts.

Unit IV:            The Mauryan Empire

  1. Background to the emergence of the Mauryan empire.
  2. The Mauryan empire and its centralized administration.
  3. Society under the Mauryas; Asoka’s dhamma and its relevance; Nature of the Mauryan economy-state control of economic activities.
  4. Political and cultural relations with special reference to Sri Lanka and West Asia; Art and architecture.
  5. Decline of the Mauryan empire

Unit V:                        Post-Mauryan developments (c.200 BC-c.300AD)

  1. Invasions and their impact:  Bactrian Greeks; Scythians; Kushanas.
  2. Polity, economy, society, religion, and culture.
  1. Polity: Post-Mauryan polities with special reference to the Kushanas and Satavahanas; Tamil Chieftaincies-Chera, Chola, Pandya.
  2. Economy: land grants and agricultural expansion; urban growth; craft production; trade and trade routes; coinage and currency; Indo-Roman trade.
  3. Society: peasantization of tribes; assimilation of incoming people.
  4. Religion: spread of Jainism and Buddhism; emergence of Mahyana Buddhism; Vaisnava and Saiva forms of worship; beginning of Tantric practices.
  5. Culture: art and architecture; sculpture; literature; scientific and technical treatises.
  6. Sangam Age: society, language and literature, Megaliths, Tamilagam.

Essential Readings:

  1. McIntosh, Jane R., The Ancient Indus Valley:New Perspectives, ABC CLIO, California, 2008.
  2. Thapar, Romila, The Penguin History of Early India-From the Origins to AD 1300, Penguin Books, 2002.
  3. Thapar, Romila, The Aryan: Recasting Constructs, Three Essays, Gurgaon, 2008.
  4. Thapar, Romila,  Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, OUP, New Delhi, 1998.
  5. Sharma, R.S., Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass, Fifth Revised Edition, Delhi, 2005.
  6. Sharma, R.S., Rethinking India's Past, Oxford University Press, 2009.
  7. Raychaudhuri, Hemchandra, Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, OUP, New Delhi, 1999.

Additional Readings:

  1. Kosambi, D.D. An Introduction to the study of Indian history, Bombay, 1985 (Reprint).
  2. Possehl, Gregory, The Indus Civilization: a contemporary perspective, Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, 2002.
  3. Sharma, R.S., India's Ancient Past, Oxford University Press, 2005.
  4.  Singh, Upinder & Nayanjot Lahiri(eds.), Ancient India : New Research, OUP, New Delhi, 2010.
  5. Ratnagar, Shereen, Understanding Harappa. Civilization in the Greater Indus Valley,  Tulika, New Delhi, 2001.
  6. Kulke, H, and D.Rothermund, A History of India, London, 1986.
  7. Basham, A.L, The Wonder That was India, Mumbai, 1971.
  8. Trautmann, Thomas R.,  The Aryan Debate, OUP, New Delhi, 2007.
  9. Chakravarti, Ranabir, Trade in Early India , OUP, New Delhi, 2004.


   History of India (Gupta to Sultanate periods)

Objectives:  This course is designed to familiarize students with the social, economic, political, and cultural developments in India from the Gupta to the early medieval periods. The purpose is to introduce students to elements of change and continuity in Indian history.

Unit I:              Age of the Guptas

  1. The Gupta Empire and its decentralized administration.
  2. Economy under the Guptas; land grants and feudalization; agrarian structure; coinage and currency system; trade.
  3. Characteristic features of Gupta society; relevance of jatidharma; women’s social position; untouchability.
  4. Cultural developments-an overview of art, architecture, sculpture, painting, literature, and religion with special emphasis on the significance of the Puranic tradition; Sanskrit theatre; Cultural contacts with Central Asia.
  5. The Maukharis, Vakatakas, Chalukyas and later Guptas.


Unit II:             Post- Gupta Period-I

  1. Post-Gupta Northern India under Harshavardhana- political organization and the growing importance of the samanta system; religious developments.
  2. Contemporary ruling families, with the focus on the Gurjara-Pratiharas, Palas, Rashtrakutas, and Varmans and their socio-economic and political institutions-administrative organizations- the implications of the theory of mixed castes (varnasamkara).

Unit III:            Post- Gupta period-II

  1. South India under the Pallavas and Cholas-stages in administrative organization under their rule; the relevance of the varna concept.
  2. The agrarian structure; trade, markets and urban centres; art and religion.
  3. The role of temples in socio-economic and political life.

Unit IV:           Sultanate period

  1. Arab invasion – its impact.
  2. Invasion by Ghazni and Ghori – nature and impact.
  3. Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate- political and social structure- territorial and military organization-rural society and the revenue system and the Iqta system- technology and agricultural production, urbanization, technology and non-agricultural production- trade, markets and monetization.
  4. Sultanate architecture and literature.

Unit V:            Regional Polities

  1. Vijayanagar and Bahmani kingdoms: polity, society and economy.
  2. Society and economy in the Deccan, Rajasthan and Orissa.
  3. Regional art and architectural forms; regional literature.
  4. Indian Ocean trade.


Essential Readings:

  1. Chandra, Satish, Medieval India: From Sultanat To The Mughals - Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526), Haranand Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1997.
  2. Chandra, Satish, History of Medieval India, Orient Longman, New Delhi, 2007.
  3. Champalakhsmi, R., Trade, Ideology, and Urbanization, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1996.
  4. Karashima, N., Ancient to Medieval: South Indian Society in Transition, OUP, New Delhi, 2009.
  5. Gurukkal, Rajan, Social Formations of Early South India, OUP, New Delhi, 2009.
  6. Sharma, R.S., Aspects of Political ideas and Institutions in Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass, Fifth Revised Edition, Delhi, 2005.
  7. Levi, Scott C., India and Central Asia , OUP, New Delhi, 2007.
  8. Devahuti, D., Harsha, OUP, New Delhi, 2001.
  9. Gupta, Uma Das, The World of the Indian Ocean Merchant 1500-1800 , OUP, New Delhi, 2004.

Additional Readings:

  1. Sharma, R.S., Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation, Orient Longman Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 2003.
  2. Chattopadhyaya, B.D., The Making of Early Medieval India, OUP, New Delhi, 1994.
  3. Nizami,  Khaliq, Ahmad Religions and Politics in India during the Thirteenth Century  OUP, New Delhi, 2002.
  4. Chandra, Satish(ed.), Religion, State, and Society in Medieval India, OUP, USA, 2008.
  5. Karashima, N., South Indian History and Society, Studies from Inscriptions AD 850 – 1800, OUP, Delhi, 1984.
  6. Stein, Burton, Peasant, State, and Society in Medieval South India, OUP, New Delhi, 1980.
  7. Aquil, Raziuddin,  Sufism and Society in Medieval India , OUP, New Delhi, 2010.



                                                       History of the Mughals


This course is intended to provide an overview of the main trends and developments in India during the Mughal period (1526-1757). The emphasis of this history will be the socio-economic and cultural patterns in understanding the polity and society as they took shape in the periods under study.

Unit I:              Foundation and consolidation of Mughal rule in India


  1. The Pre-Mughal society.
  2. Sources and their uses- literary (memoirs such as Babur Nama, Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri, Humayun Nama; chronicles like Akbar Nama and Ain-i-Akbari; and accounts of foreign travelers like that of F.Bernier, Tavernier, and Sir Thomas Roe) and the archaeological record.
  3. Advent of the Mughal and the Afghan interlude, territorial expansion and consolidation 1526-1556.


Unit II:             State and Government under the Mughals


  1. Theory of kingship, Administration – Mughal, Sher Shah and  Shivaji.
  2. Akbar and Aurangzeb’s relations with the Rajputs, Marathas, Sikhs, Deccan kingdoms.
  3. Formation of the Maratha state.
  4. Mansabdari system.


Unit III:            Society and Economy

  1. Social structure, status of women, nobility, Zamindars.
  2. Patterns in economy- land revenue administration, agriculture, industry, trade and commerce.


Unit IV:           Religion and Fine Arts

  1. Mughal religious policy- Akbar and Aurangzeb.
  2. Bhakti and Sufi movements.
  3. Architecture, Painting and Literature.


Unit-V:            Disintegration and decline

  1. Crisis of Mughal Empire and theories of decline.
  2. Emergence of successor states.


Essential Readings:

  1. Chandra, Satish,  Medieval India, Part two, Mughal Empire 1526-1748, Har Anand Publications, New Delhi,1999.
  2. Chandra, Satish , Historiography, Religion and State in Medieval India, Delhi, 1997.
  3. Alam, Muzaffar & Sanjay Subramanyam , The Mughal State, OUP, Delhi, 1998.
  4. Nizami, K.A., Religion and Politics in India in the 13th Century, OUP, New Delhi, 2002.

Additional Readings:

  1. Alam, Muzaffar,   The Crisis of Empire in Mughal north India, Awadh and the Punjab, 1707-1748, Delhi, 1986.
  2. Habib, Irfan,  Agrarian system of Mughal India (1550-1707), Bombay, 1963.
  3. Habib, Irfan(Ed.),   Medieval India I: Researches in the History of India, 1200-1750, Delhi, 1992
  4. Habib,Irfan &Tapan Raychaudhuri,  The Cambridge Economic History of India, vol 1, Cambridge, 1982


  1. Siddiqi, N. A.,  Land Revenue Administration under the Mughals, 1700-1750, Bombay, 1970.
  2. Tripathi, R. P.,  Rise and fall of the Mughal Empire, Allahabad, 1990.
  3. Tripathi, R. P.,  Some Aspects of Mughal Administration, Allahabad, 1974.
  4. Moreland, W. H.,  Agrarian System of Mughal India, N. Delhi, 1998
  5. Athar Ali, M.,   The Mughal nobility under Aurangzeb, revised edition, Delhi, 1997
  6. Chandra, Satish ,  Medieval India: Society. The jagirdari crisis and the village, Delhi, 1982
  7. Chandra, Satish,    Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court, 1707-1740, Delhi, 1979.
  8. Alam Khan, Iqtadar,   The Nobility under Akbar and the development of his religious policy, 1560-1580, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1968)
  9. Richards, J. F.   The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, 1995
  10. Raychaudhuri, T   Mughal Empire under Akbar and Jehangir, Calcutta, 1953.



Modern India (Part-I)



This course is designed to acquaint the students with the major developments in India during the period under study with special reference to the rise and growth of British power in India, emergence of national and anti-colonial movements.


 Unit I: Expansion and consolidation of British Rule with special reference to:-

  1. Bengal
  2. Mysore
  3. Maraths
  4. Punjab
  5. Awadh
  6. Revolt of 1857


Unit II: Colonial State and its ideology

  1. Orientalism
  2. Utilitarianism
  3. Classical political thought in relation to India; theory of rent; laissez faire; colonial paternalism.
  4. Colonial State’s attitude to social institutions such as caste, tribe and communities.


Unit III: Rural economy and society

  1. The rural agrarian social structure.
  2. Land revenue settlements.
  3. Commercialization of agriculture.
  4. Peasants and landless Labour.
  5. Rural credit and indebtedness.


Unit IV: Trade and Industry

  1. Changes in the trading economy of India in the 18th century: Surat, Bengal, Coromandel; trade; and trade routes.
  2. Banking-indigenous; and modern.
  3. Emergence of modern industries-cotton; jute; and steel.


Unit V: Cultural Changes and Social and Religious Reform Movements

  1. Rise of modern education; and press.
  2. Rise of new intelligentsia and its social composition.
  3. Socio-religious reform movements.
  4. Sanskritization; caste movements; Brahmanical and Depressed Classes.


Essential Readings:

  1. Bandyopadhyay, Shekhar,  From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India,

Orient Longman, New Delhi, 2004.(paperback)

  1. Thomas. R. Metcalf, A Concise History of Modern India, 4th edition, Oxford.

University Press, 2008 (Indian edition).

  1. Roy, Tirthankar,  Economic History of Modern India, Oxford University Press,


  1. Dutt, R.P., India Today, Manish, 1970.
  2. Jones, Kenneth W. , New Cambridge History of India : Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India, Cambridge University Press, 1989. (Indian paperback edition).


Additional Readings:

  1. Desai,A.R.,  Social background of Indian Nationalism, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, 2000.
  2. Panikkar.K.N., Culture, Ideology, Hegemony : Intellectual and social consciousness Colonial India, Tulika, New Delhi,1995.
  3. Chandra, Bipan ,  Nationalism and Colonialism in Modern India, New Delhi, 1979.
  4. Chandra, Bipan, Essays on Colonialism, Orient Longman, Hyderabad, 1999.
  5. Chandra, Bipan , The Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism in India, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1982.
  6. Chaudhuri, K. C.,    History of Modern India, New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd., Kolkata, 1983.
  7. Kumar, Dharma(ed.), Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol.II, Orient Longman, 1982.
  8. Pati, Biswamoy,The 1857 Rebellion, OUP, New Delhi, 2010.
  9. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Routledge, London & New York, 1998.
  10. Tripathi, D.J., Oxford Business History of India, 2 vols.



    Modern India (Part-II)

Objective: This course is designed to acquaint the students with the major developments in India during the period under study with special reference to the emergence of national and anti-colonial movements in India.


Unit I:

  1. Historiography of Indian nationalism
  2. Predecessors of the Indian National Congress
  3. Formation of the Indian National Congress
  4. Moderates and Extremists
  5. Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi movement
  6. Home Rule Leagues

Unit II:

  1. Ideas and movements-1919-1947.
  2. Gandhian ideology and movements- Rowlatt  Satyagraha; Khilafat,

Non-cooperation; Civil Disobedience; Quit India.

  1. Role of social groups and classes in these movements.
  2. Ideological trends in the Congress.
  3. Revolutionaries; Left movements; and States’ Peoples’ movements.


Unit III: Constitutional Changes and response

  1. Morley Minto Reforms.
  2. Govt. of India Act of 1919;
  3. Swarajists and regional political parties.
  4. Simon Commission and Nehru Report.
  5. Communal Award.
  6. Govt. of India Act, 1935.
  7. Working of Provincial Ministries.
  8. Cripps Mission.
  9. Wavell Plan.
  10. Cabinet Mission


Unit IV:

  1. Emergence of Communal consciousness.
  2. Some communal organizations: Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, RSS, Akali Dal.
  3. British policy to communalism.

Unit V:

  1. INA, Naval Mutiny.
  2. Freedom and Partition of India.
  3. Integration of princely states.
  4. Framing of the Constitution.

Essential Readings:

  1. Sarkar  Sumit, Modern India, 1885-1947,  Macmillan India, Delhi,1983.
  2. Chandra, Bipan et.al.,  India’s Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947, Penguin, New Delhi, 2000
  3. Bandyopadhyay, Shekhar, From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, Orient Longman, New Delhi, 2004.
  4. Thomas. R. Metcalf, A Concise History of Modern India, 4th edition, Oxford University

Press, 2008.(Indian edition).

Additional Readings:

  1. Brown, Judith, Gandhi’s Rise to Power, OUP, London,1997
  2. Brown, Judith, Gandhi and Civil disobedience, OUP, London,1995.
  3. Chandra, Bipan, Communalism in Modern India, Vikas Publications House, Delhi, 1966.
  4. Chandra, Bipan, The Epic Struggle, Orient Longman, New Delhi, 1992.
  5. Pandey, Gyanendra, Construction of Communalism in Modern India Colonial North  India, OUP, Delhi, 1993.
  6. Pandey, Gyanendra, (ed.), The Indian Nation in 1942, K.P.Bagchi & Co. Kolkatta,1988.
  7. Seal, Anil, Emergence of Indian Nationalism, Cambridge University Press, 1960.


Early Modern Europe



This paper balances political, economic, religious, and cultural history of Continental Europe till the early modern period. Beginning with the fifteenth-century conquest of the “Atlantic Mediterranean”, it traces the emergence of Europe as the first truly global power while at the same time the people, ideas, and forces that have shaped the character and institutions of the modern world are discussed.

Unit I:                          Commerce, Conquest, and Colonization, 1300-1600

  1. The rise of the Ottoman empire; Mediterranean colonialism-silver shortages and the search for African gold-sea-based Mediterranean empires (Catalunya, Venice, and Genoa)-the technology of ships and navigation-Portugal, Africa, and the sea-route to India-artillery and empire-Prince Henry the Navigator-Atlantic colonization and the growth of slavery.
  2. The discovery of a New World-the Spanish conquest of America-the profits of empire in the New World.


Unit-II:                         The Renaissance and The Reformations of Religion


  1. The Renaissance and the Middle Ages-Renaissance Classicism-Renaissance Humanism; The Renaissance in Italy-origins-Renaissance literature and thought-painting, sculpture, and architecture-the waning of the Italian Renaissance; The Renaissance in the North-Christian Humanism, literature, art, and music.
  2. The Lutheran upheaval- the spread of Protestantism; The domestication of the Reformation (1525-1560); The English Reformation; Catholicism transformed.

Unit-III :                       Religious Wars, State Building, Intellectuals and Artists

  1. Turbulent periods-The Price Revolution-Religious conflicts-Political instability; Religious wars-The German wars of religion-The French wars of religion-The Revolt of the Netherlands; England and the defeat of the Spanish Armada; The Thirty Years’ War; The balance of power in Europe-Spain, France, and England; The English Civil War-origins and consequences.
  2. Witchcraft accusations and the power of the state; Political philosophy and the search for authority-Michel de Montaigne, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes, Blaise Pascal; Literature and the arts-Miguel De Cervantes-Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama-Italian and Spanish painting(Mannerism); Baroque art and architecture; Dutch painting in the Golden Age


Unit- IV:                      Absolutism and Empire (1660-1789) and The French Revolution

  1. The appeal and justification of Absolutism; Alternatives to Absolutism; The Absolutism of Louis XIV; The remaking of Central and Eastern Europe; Autocracy in Russia; Commerce and Consumption; Colonization and Trade in the Seventeenth Century; Colonization and Empire.
  2. The French Revolution-The coming of the Revolution-The destruction of the Old Regime; A new stage: Popular revolution; The Reign of Terror; The Quest for Stability – Directory and Consulate.


Unit- V            :                       The Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment

  1. The intellectual roots of the Scientific Revolution; A revolution in Astronomy; Methods for a new philosophy-Bacon and Descartes; The power of method and the force of curiosity-Seventeenth Century experimenters.
  2. The foundations of the Enlightenment; The world of the Philosophes; Internationalization of Enlightenment themes; Nature, Gender, and Enlightenment Radicalism-Rousseau and Wollstonecraft; The Enlightenment and Eighteenth Century culture.

Essential Readings:


  1. Coffin, Judith G. & Robert C. Stacey, Western Civilizations, 15th edition, W.W. Norton & Co, New York, 2005.
  2. Wiesner-Hanks, Merry E., Early Modern Europe, 1450-1789, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  3. Kumin(ed.),Beat, The European World, 1500-1800: An Introduction to Early Modern History (2009).
  4. Huppert, George, After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe, Second Edition, 1998.


                          North East India   (from 4th to the 13th Centuries A.D.)

Objective :
The course is intended to familiarize students with the major political and socio- economic developments of the Brahmaputra Valley from the earliest times till 1228.


Unit I:

The sources and the geographical background; The rise of the Kingdom of Kamrupa in the 4th Century.

Unit II:

Polity: The nature of kingship in the context of dynastic history from the Varman line of kings to the reign of Vallabhadeva.

Unit III:

Society : Social differentiations and the relevance of the concept of Varna; the    significance of Sudras and Brahmanas and the only distinct varna categories.

Unit IV:

Economy : The land  system with special reference to the revenue administration; sources of taxation; trade and commerce; arts and crafts.

Unit V :

Religion : The influences of the major Brahmanical sects; significance of the Kamakhya Cult; Other religious cults of the Puranic tradition; the process of Syncretism .

Essential Readings :

1. Choudhury, P.C.,   A History of The Civilization of the People of Assam, 3rd   revised edition, Spectrum Publication, Delhi, 1987.
2. Puri, B.N., Study in the Early History and Administration of Assam, Gauhati University 1968.

 3. Lahiri, Nayanjot, Pre-Ahom Assam,  Delhi, 1987.

 4. Vasu, N.N., Social History of Kamrupa, New Delhi, Reprint 1997.
 5. Mukherjee, B.N.,  External Trade of Early North-Eastern India, New Delhi, 1992.

6. Barpujari, H.K.,    The Comprehensive History of Assam, Volume I, Publication  Board Assam, 1992.


History of North East India (1228-1822)


 The course is designed to present a brief study of major political and socio-economic developments in Northeast India from the 13th century till 1824.

 Unit I:

Historiography, sources and their uses; Emergence of new politics - Chutiya, Cachari,  Ahom,  and Koch.

 Unit II:

Consolidation of Ahom State - System of Administration; Paik and Khel system, Trade and Markets; Shankaradeva and the Neo-Vaishnavite Movement; Decline of the Ahom  State.

 Unit III:

 Political Developments and state formation - Koch, Cachari (Dimasa), Tripura, Jaintia, and Manipur.

 Unit IV:

 Pre-Colonial Society and Economy - Khasi, Garo, Naga and Mizo.

 Unit V:

British Relations with the Northeast; contact with Burma and its significance.


 Essential Readings:

 1. Barpujari, H.K.,    The Comprehensive History of Assam, Volume II & III, Publication  Board Assam, 1992.
 2. Basu, N.K., Assam in the Ahom Age 1228-1826, Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, Calcutta,  1970.

 3. Bhuyan, S.K., Anglo Assamese Relation:1771-1826.
 4.Sinha,Surajit , Tribal Polities and Trade System in Pre-colonial Eastern And  North- Eastern India, K.P.Bagchi, Calcutta,1991.
 5. Horam, M., Naga Polity, B.R. Publication Corporation, Delhi, 1975.   


                              History of Northeast India(1822-1986)


The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with the major trends of  political, social and economic developments in the North East India from 1822 to the reorganisation of states in 1972.

 Unit I:

 Early British policy - Non regulation system; First Anglo-Burmese War  and its significance; Annexation of Assam, Cachar, Jaintia.

 Unit II:

Consolidation of British rule in the Hills - Khasi, Garo, Naga and Mizo hills; Pattern of Administration; British Relations with tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura.

 Unit III:

Economic and Social changes under the British Rule - Land Revenue; Plantation Industry; Trade and Commerce; Western Education.

 Unit IV:

Impact of Nationalist Movement in Assam; Revolt of 1857;  Partition of Bengal; Assam Association; Non- cooperation Movement; Civil disobedience movement; Quit India movement; Cripps’ Mission; Cabinet Mission; and Independence.

 Unit V:

Political Developments since Independence - Integration of Manipur , Khasi States and Tripura into the Indian Union; The Sixth Schedule; Hill state Movements;  Re organization of the North East States 1972; Mizoram and the Memorandum of Settlement, 1986.

Essential Readings:

  1.  Barpujari, H.K., Assam in the Days of the Company, NEHU, 1997.
  2. Barpujari, H.K., The Comprehensive History of Assam, Volume IV & V, Publication  Board of Assam, Gauhati, 1992.
  3. Barpujari, H.K., Problems Of the Hill Tribes: North East India Vol-I, Lawyers  Book Stall,  Gauhati, 1970; Vol- II, Basanti Prakash, 1976; and Vol - III, Spectrum Publishers, Gauhati, 1981.
  4.  Chaube, S.K.,Hill Politics in North East India, Orient Longman, Calcutta,  Reprinted 1999.
  5. Lahiri, R.M., Annexation of Assam, Firma KLM, Calcutta, 1975.
  6. Bhattacharjee, J.B., The Garos and the English, Radiant Publishers, New Delhi, 1997.
  7. Bhattacharjee, J.B., Trade and Colony,  Shillong,  2000.

             Modern World History


With an emphasis on Europe, this course will analyse the political, economic, social, and cultural transformations of the modern world that took place from the nineteenth century till the end of the Second World War. 


Unit I:              The Industrial Revolution and Nineteenth Century Society

  1. Background-late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries development; The Industrial Revolution in Britain (1760-1850)-innovation in the textile industries-coal and iron; The Industrial Revolution on the Continent; Industrialization after 1850; Industry and empire.
  2. The social consequences of industrialization-the emergence of a class society; Population explosion; The peasantry in the countryside; The urban landscape-environmental pollution; prostitution; The Middle classes; working class life; “Class” consciousness.


Unit II:             Europe in the Nineteenth Century: Politics and Ideology

  1. Rise of Napoleon and the Napoleonic empire; Napoleonic reforms; The Congress of Vienna; Liberalism and Conservatism; Literature and the Arts; Karl Marx; The French Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.
  2. Rise of nationalism: The Unification of Italy and Germany; Eastern Questions and International Relations-The Crimean War(1854-1856).

Unit III:            Imperialism and Colonialism (1870-1914)/ Modern Industry and Mass Politics (1870-1914)

  1. Causes of the “new imperialism”; Imperialism in South Asia and China; Russian imperialism; The French Empire and the Civilizing Mission; The Scramble for Africa and The Congo; Crises of Empire at the turn of the twentieth century-Fashoda; Ethiopia, South Africa; U.S. imperialism.
  2. New technologies and global transformations-the “second” industrial revolution (steel, electricity, chemicals)- -rise of the corporation-international economics (manufacturing, trade, and finance).
  3. Labour politics; Mass movements-Marxism and the emergence and spread of socialist parties; Suffrage and Women’s movement; National politics at the turn of the century; Anti-Semitism; Zionism; Darwinism and Social Darwinism;; The printed mass culture; Innovations in art.


Unit IV            :           The First World War and the Turmoil between The Two World Wars

  1. The causes of the war-The July Crisis; The Marne and its consequences; Stalemate, 1915; The Great Battles, 1916-1917; War of Empires; Women in the War;
  2. The Russian Revolution: The February Revolution and the October Revolution; The United States as a World Power; The Peace Settlement and the League of Nations.
  3. Lenin’s NEP; Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany.
  4. The Great Depression-origins and effects.


Unit V:                                    The Second World War

  1. The causes of the War: Unsettled quarrels, economic fallout, and nationalism; Challenges to the Peace; The Spanish Civil War; German rearmament and the politics of appeasement; The outbreak of hostilities and the fall of France; The battle of Britain and the beginnings of a global war; Germany’s war in the East and the occupation of Europe; Racial war, ethnic cleansing, and the Holocaust.
  2.  Total War: Home Fronts, The War of Production, Bombing, and the “Bomb”; The Allied counterattack and the dropping of the Atomic Bomb; The Eastern Front; The Western Front; The War in the Pacific; Significance of the Second World War.
  3. Consequences of the war-the establishment of the UNO.

Essential Readings:

  1. Coffin, Judith G. & Robert C. Stacey, Western Civilizations, 15th Edition, W.W. Norton & Co, New York, 2005.
  2. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton & Lloyd Kramer, A History of the Modern World, 10th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2007.
  3. Bayly, C.A., The Birth of the Modern World, 1780-1914, Wiley-Blackwell, 2004.
  4. Briggs, Asa & Patricia Clavin, Modern Europe 1789 to the Present, 2nd Edition, Longman, 2003.
  5. Hobsbawm, Eric, The Age of Extremes: A History of the World 1914-1991, Abacus, London, 1995.


                                                              Contemporary World

Objective: The course is designed to be a survey of the political, economic, social and cultural history of the world since the end of the Second World War.

Unit I:             The Cold War World: Global Politics and Economic Recovery

  1. The 'First 'Cold War in Europe, 1945–61-origins and characteristics; From Cold War to Détente, 1962–79-the Cuban Missile Crisis, the European détente, and the death of détente.
  2. The Golden Years-Post-War economic recovery in Western and Eastern Europe-the EEC and the COMECON; the Welfare State among Western European states.


Unit II:             Decolonization, Revolutions, and the Transformation of Asia and Africa

  1. The end of the Raj; Nationalism and independence in South-East Asia; The Chinese Revolution; China, Japan and the Cold War in Asia; The Korean War; The Vietnam Wars, 1945–79.
  2. The Arab-Israeli conflict.
  3. Africa after 1945:The end of empire; The rise and fall of pan-Africanism;; The Cold War in Africa; The end of apartheid in South Africa; The legacy of empire; Poverty, resources and the troubled road to democracy.


Unit III:            Neutralism, Development and the Rise of the Third World


  1. Neutrality in Cold War Europe; India the Non-Aligned Movement; Development and the Group of 77; The fragmentation of the Third World.
  2. The rise of East Asia-Japan as an economic superpower; South Korea and Taiwan as economic powerhouses.
  3. China and North Korea: Ideology and nationalism-The rise and decline of the Sino-Soviet alliance; Revolutionary China and the Third World; North Korea: the last Stalinist state.
  4. The United States and Latin America- Guatemala, Cuba, Chile and Nicaragua; Popular revolts and economic inequality, anti-Americanism, nationalism and socialism.



Unit IV:           The End of the Cold War (1960-1990): Politics, Society, and Culture


  1. The collapse of Communism and the end of the Soviet Union; Fall of the Berlin Wall; The unipolar moment: America at the apex; The ‘new world order’ and ethnic conflict; European integration.
  2. The Social Revolution: death of the peasantry; the new mass of students; industrial working classes; women’s changing roles.
  3. Cultural Revolution: personal liberation and social liberation; mass culture-music and youth culture; art and painting; film; gender roles and sexual revolution.
  4. Social Movements during the 1960s: The Civil Rights Movement; The Antiwar Movement; The Student Movement.


Unit V:            Globalization and the West


  1. Globalization: its meaning and the flow of money, ideas, and peoples; Informationalism, networks, and the network society.
  2. Post-Colonial politics; Israel, Oil, and the rise of political Islam in the Middle East.
  3. The rise of the Fourth World: Informational Capitalism, Poverty, and Social Exclusion.
  4. War and Terrorism in the 21st Century.


Essential Readings:

  1. Best, Antony et.al., International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond, 2nd Edition, Routledge, UK, 2008.
  2. Hobsbawm, Eric, The Age of Extremes: A History of the World 1914-1991, Abacus, London, 1995.
  3. Castells, Manuel, The Information Age Vol.3 (End of Millennium), Second Edition (with a new preface), Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, 2010.
  4. Castells, Manuel (ed.), The Network Society, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, UK, 2004.
  5. Held, David, Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, Polity, UK, 1999.


Additional Readings:

  1. Boyd, Andrew & Joshua Comenetz, An atlas of world affairs, 11th Edition, Routledge, 2007.
  2. Stearns, Peter N., World History in Brief: Major Patterns of Change and Continuity, Volume 1 (To 1450), 7th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2009.
  3. Palmer,  R. R., Joel Colton, & Lloyd Kramer, A History of the Modern World, 10th Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2007.
  4. Duiker, William J., Contemporary World History, Wadsworth Publishing, 2009.
  5. Hobsbawm, Eric, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality, ; 2nd Edition,  Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  6. Grenville, J.A.S., A History of the World From the 20th to the 21st Century, 2nd Edition, Routledge, 2005.




Objective: The aim of this course is to introduce students into the study of history. The main subject is the methodological framework within which historians work: It is also intended to familiarize students with concepts such as the definition of history as an academic discipline, historical facts and their relationship to past realities, the notions of memory, tradition and sources, the historian’s role in constructing the past, narrative and analytical approaches to historiography, the status of history as a (social) science and the social functions of history.


Unit I:              Meaning and scope of History

  1. Meaning of history and historiography
  2. Nature and scope of history
  3. Objectivity and subjectivity in history
  4. Causation


Unit II:             History and other disciplines

  1. Archaeology
  2. Geography
  3. Linguistics
  4. Sociology
  5. Economics
  6. Philosophy
  7. Political Science
  8. Literature
  9. Natural Sciences


Unit III :           Sources and Methods

  1. Sources of history
  2. Collection and selection of data
  3. Evidence and its transmission
  4. Bibliography and references.


Unit IV:           Traditions of Historical Writing

  1. Greco-Roman traditions
  2. Ancient Indian tradition
  3. Medieval Western historiography
  4. Modern Historiography-Positivist, Marxist and Annales


Unit V:                        Approaches to History

  1. Imperialist
  2. Nationalist
  3. Marxist
  4. Subaltern


Essential Readings:

  1. Arnold, John H., History: A Very Short Introduction, OUP, April 2000
  2. Carr, E.H., What is History? (With a new Introduction by Richard J Evans), 3rd Edition, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  3. Tosh, John, The Pursuit of history, 5th edition, Longman Publishing Group, 2010.
  4. Sreedharan, E., A Text Book of historiography: 500 BC to AD 2000,Orient Longman, 2004.
  5. Jayapalan, N., Historiography, Atlantic Publishers, 2000.
  6. Ali, Sheikh, Historiography.

Additional Readings:

  1. Bentley, Michael, Modern Historiography; An Introduction. Routledge,1999.
  2. Bentley, Michael (ed.)Companion to Historiography,Routledge, 1997.
  3. Southgate, Beverley, History: What and Why? Ancient, Modern and Postmodern Perspectives, Routledge, 1996.



History of USA (1776-1945)

Unit I:               Revolution and Early Republic

  1. Nature of English colonial rule in North America
  2. Causes of the American Revolution and its aftermath
  3. Historical interpretations of the American Revolution
  4. Constitutional debates: Federalist and Anti-Federalist
  5. Rise of political parties
  6. Jeffersonian Democracy versus Jacksonian Democracy
  7. War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine


Unit II:              Westward Expansion and Sectionalism

  1. The doctrine of ‘Manifest Destiny’
  2. The annexation of Texas, the Mexican War and its consequences
  3. Compromise of 1820 and 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska question
  4. The Oregon Question
  5. The railroads and their significance
  6. The Gold Rush of 1849 and Californian statehood
  7. Closing of the frontier and Turner’s Frontier Thesis.


Unit III:            Civil War and Reconstruction

  1. Growth of American Slavery
  2.  Abolition Movement
  3. Causes of American Civil War
  4. Social, economic, and political impact of the war
  5. Reconstruction plans (presidential vs. congressional reconstruction plans)
  6. Effects of Reconstruction on freedmen, and on the White South
  7. Compromise of 1877 and the end of Reconstruction


Unit IV:           Industrial Growth and Reform Movement

  1. Reasons for the expansion of US industry and commerce after the Civil War
  2. Effects of mass immigration
  3. Effects of technical innovations
  4. The impact of railroad expansion
  5. Rise of Big Business
  6. Agrarian Revolt and Populism
  7. Progressive Movement and its impact on business


Unit V:                        United States and the twoWorld Wars

  1. The policy of neutrality and the First World War
  2. Reasons for entry of the USA into the war
  3. Wilson and the Versailles Settlement
  4. The origins of Depression
  5. The New Deal
  6. New Deal diplomacy
  7. United States and the Second World War

Essential Readings:

  1. Alan Brinkley, American History: A Survey. 10th ed. Boston, Mass. McGraw-Hill Co. Inc., 1999
  1. Paul Boyer, et. al., (eds.). The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. Concise 6th Edition, Houghton-Mifflin, 2009.
  2. Dee Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, Vintage, new edition, 1998
  3. Hugh Brogan, The Penguin History of the USA. Second edition, Penguin, 2001

Additional Readings:

  1. David Kennedy and Thomas A. Bailey, The American Spirit: United States As Seen by Contemporaries, Vol. I, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,(November 2005)
  2. David Kennedy and Thomas A. Bailey, The American Spirit: United States As Seen by Contemporaries, Vol. II, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,( September 2005)
  3. George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower: U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776, Oxford University Press, USA, 2008.
  4.  Max Edling, A Revolution in Favor of Government: Origins of the U.S. Constitution and the Making of the American State (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  5. Samuel Eliot Morison , Henry Steele Commager &William E. Leuchtenburg, The Growth of the American Republic: Volume 1& 2, seventh edition, Oxford University Press, 1980.


History of Modern South East Asia (1800-1970 AD)

(Countries to be covered: Burma, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam)

Objective: Southeast Asia is a fascinating and important region of the world, characterized first and foremost by remarkable diversity in culture, history, politics, and social dynamics. The objects of this course are to help acquaint the student with the evolution of colonial policy and practices, decolonization and the emergence of modern nations in South East Asia.


Unit I:              Pre-colonial Polity, Society and Economy

  1. Structures of power and authority, c. 1800
  2.  patterns of production in agriculture and the crafts;
  3. organization of trade and banking;
  4. cultural expression-Folk and Classical
  5. Islam and popular culture


Unit II:             Colonization and transformation

  1. Establishment of a colonial state
  2. Motivation and nature of colonial rule (‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ rule)
  3. Factors which contributed to the type of control and direct government interference
  4. The non-representative nature of colonial rule
  5. Japanese occupation and Concept of Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.


Unit III:            The penetration of Capitalism and its consequences

  1. Capitalism and the spread of international economy in Southeast Asia
  2. Impact of international commerce on Southeast Asia
  3. Factors for migration of people within and from outside Southeast Asia
  4. Consequences of migration in Southeast Asia–rise of plural society
  5. The Great Depression and restrictions on emigration


Unit IV:           Nationalism, Decolonization and Independence

  1. Origins, nature and development of nationalism
  2. Key personalities in the nationalist movements
  3. Attitude and response of colonial governments to the rise of nationalism
  4. The Japanese Occupation and its impact on nationalism
  5. Impact of World War II
  6. Decolonization in Southeast Asia


Unit V:            Nation-building

  1. Forms of governments in new states
  2. Successes and limitations
  3. Policies towards minorities
  4. Construction of a national culture
  5. Role of the military;
  6. Rivalry and conflict in Southeast Asia.


Essential Readings:


  1. Tarling, Nicholas, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia (Part 2)(Paperback, 2000)
  2. Tarling, Nicholas,A History of Modern South East Asia, 1968
  3. Peter Church,A Short History of South-East Asia(Paperback, 2009
  4. Milton E., OsborneSoutheast Asia: An Introductory History (Paperback, 2005)
  5. Craig A. Lockard, Southeast Asia in World History (New Oxford World History)(Paperback, 2009)

Additional Readings:

  1. Heidhues , Mary Somers, Southeast Asia: A Concise History(Paperback , 2001)
  2. Reid, Anthony, Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era: Trade, Power, and Belief (Asia East By South)(Paperback, 1993)
  3. Darwin, J., The End of the British Empire: The Historical Debate,1991, Blackwell Publishers
  4. Charney, Michael W.,A History Of Modern Burma(Paperback ,2009)
  5. Thant Myint-u, The Making Of Modern Burma(Paperback,2001)
  6. Vickers, Adrian,A History Of Modern Indonesia (Paperback ,2006)



History of Modern China

Objective: This course intends to impart students the knowledge of major historical developments in the 19th and early 20th centuries in China.

Unit I: Economy, society and polity:

  1. The Emperor and the nobility; government organization at central and  local level
  1. Land and taxation systems; population
  1. Social stratification; the government examination
  1. Decline of the Manchu power; the western advance and the tributary system

Unit II: China and the Western World:

  1. The nature and origin of the Canton system of trade; foreign life at canton
  1. British attempts to change the Canton system
  1. The opium wars; treaties with imperialist powers;
  1. Struggle for concessions in China; open door policy

Unit III: Rebellion and Reform movements:

  1. Taiping rebellion
  1. The Nien and Muslim rebellions
  1. Self-strengthening movement
  1. 100 days reforms

Unit IV: End of Dynasty and emergence of Nationalism

  1. Boxer rebellion and its consequences
  1. Structural reforms between 1901-1908
  1. Revolutionaries, the new Republic and Warlords
  1. May Fourth Movement- nature and significance

Unit V: The Communist Revolution

  1. KMT politics
  1. The Military and the Modern
  1. Mao Zedong and the Communist Revolution
  1. The Birth of the People’s Republic of China

Essential Readings:

1.      Jonathan D. Spence, The Search for Modern China (Second Edition), W. W. Norton & Company; Second Edition (January 17, 1999)

2.      Immanuel C. Y. Hsu, The Rise of Modern China, Oxford University Press, USA; 6 edition (December 9, 1999)

Additional Readings:

1.      John K. Fairbank and Merle Goldman, China: A New History, Second Enlarged Edition, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006.


History of Modern Japan

Objective: This course intends to impart students the knowledge of major historical developments in the 19th and early 20th centuries in Japan.

Unit I:  Late Tokugawa Shogunate

  1. The Structure of the Tokugawa Bakufu; Bakufu-Han Relations
  2. The Western powers and unequal treaties
  3. the Satsuma-Choshu Insurgency and domestic unrest

Unit II:  Meiji Restoration

  1. Political Unification and Central Bureaucracy
  2. Eliminating the Status System; The Conscript Army and Compulsory Education
  3. Movement for freedom and People’s right; Samurai Rebellions and Peasant Uprisings

Unit III: Japan and Modernization

  1. Industrial Revolution; spread of mass and higher education
  2. Culture and religion
  3. Growth of Japanese nationalism

Unit IV: Imperial Japan

  1. Sino-Japanese relations; Anglo-Japanese Alliance;
  2. Russo-Japanese War; Japan and World War I;
  3. Japan and International politics between the World Wars; Manchurian Crisis

Unit V:  Democracy and the Road to War

  1. Emergence of political parties; the structure of parliamentary government;
  2. Failure of democratic system; rise of militarism and second Sino-Japanese War
  3. Japan and World War II; defeat and its consequences

Essential Readings:

  1. Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present, Oxford University Press, USA (January 9, 2003)

2.      Marius B. Jansen, The Making of Modern Japan, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (October 15, 2002)

Additional Readings:

1.      James L. McCLain, Japan: A Modern History: College Edition, W. W. Norton & Company, 2002.

2.      Ian Buruma, Inventing Japan: 1853-1964, Random House, 2004.

3.      R.H.P. Mason and J.G. Caiger, A History of Japan: Revised Edition, Tuttle Publishing; Revised edition, 1997.

4.      Elise K. Tipton, Modern Japan: A Social and Political History (Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese Studies), Routledge; 2 edition, 2008.